Training Workshop
“Barriers and Opportunities on Waste to Energy in Thailand and Vietnam”

March 19-23, 2018

EEP Mekong organized three one-day training workshop with the aim to Build Capacity to plan and implement Waste-to-Energy (W2E) projects, as well as enhance the knowledge of WTE related government agencies and private project developers in Thailand and Vietnam (HCMC and Hanoi). 

The training targeted representatives from clean energy and waste management related government agencies and from private project developers. Over 150 participants from Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia attended the workshops. The stakeholders invited were selected through consultation with Business Finland and the EEP National Coordinators in Thailand and Vietnam, identifying participants with potential to make an impact in the sector. 

EEP selected an International WTE Expert, Mr Esa Ekholm to cover the main topics of the workshop, as well as a Financial Expert, Mr Tero Raassina (Global Green Growth Institute) to speak on Financing models in WTE projects.  

Additionally, a number of local speakers from relevant Government Agencies in Thailand and Vietnam, presented their views on the Waste to Energy sector in their countries, the Policies and Regulations, as well as Barriers and Opportunities. These speakers included:


  • Ms. Sutthasini Glawgitigul, Scientist, Senior Professional Level, DEDE
  • Dr. Pireeyutma Vanaprik, Managing Director of Green Path Company Limited
  • Mr. Nguyen Quoc Tuan (Deputy Director General, Administration of Technical Infrastructure (ATI), Ministry of Construction of Vietnam)
  • Ms Pham Huong Giang (Renewable Energy Dept., MOIT)


The workshop opening and welcome words came from:

  • Mr. Narapandra Yamalee, Director of Planning Division, DEDE
  • Mr. Kari Kahiluoto, Ambassador of Finland in Hanoi


Complementing the workshop, in collaboration with Business Finland, the workshop provided information on existing financing support programs and key W2E Technologies from Finland, and included presentations from Finnish companies offering W2E technologies that can be adopted in Vietnam/Thailand. 

The Finnish companies presenting their offering, and case studies included:

The logistic arrangements for the workshop received a strong support from the EEP Partner in Thailand (DEDE), as well as from Business Finland in Vietnam. 

Some photos from the workshop can be found at:


Training content:

The training workshop provided inputs to following topics:

  • Waste hierarchy and trends affecting waste volume and quality
  • Drivers that impact W2E business / Opportunities for the WTE sector development in Thailand / Vietnam.
  • Description of main obstacles for the WTE sector in Thailand / Vietnam.
  • Appropriate waste management and collection system for energy production.
  • Existing technologies and trends in waste to energy utilization (biogas production from organic waste, quality improvement for vehicle fuels, waste sorting, high efficiency power plants, etc.).
  • RDF technology applications: overview of RDF technologies incl. pros and cons
  • Standardization of RDF.
  • Cost-benefit analysis for WTE business models.
  • Suitable financing options for W2E projects (including support from Finnish institutions)
  • Regulatory framework to control, track and verify waste power plants.
  • Government incentives to promote waste to energy development (electricity and heat)
  • Environmental aspects of W2E technology applications.
  • Community participation in planning and monitoring of Waste Management plants, W2E installations
  • Case Studies / Lessons Learnt

The program and materials can be downloaded here


The following presentations can be downloaded as PDF files:



These workshops enabled participants, both from public sector and project developers, to understand the deployment barriers for W2E technologies in their respective countries (Thailand, Vietnam) which are preventing the required improvement of overall waste management practices incl. application of W2E technologies.

In addition, the workshops enabled participants to identify opportunities for innovative WtE developments in Thailand/Vietnam. Furthermore, the workshops provided participants an introduction to the application of tools to conduct cost-benefits analysis of W2E project and give inform on available best financing options in their particular countries and the SE-Asia region.

Conclusions on the technical discussions:

The discussions among participants and speakers brought up come interesting conclusions, summarized below:

Waste is collected as mixed waste, organic and dry waste in the same bin. The proportion of wet organic waste is high, over 60 %. Mass incineration is a simple method but when the incoming material has moisture over 60 % and it includes non combustible materials, it is difficult to maintain necessary conditions in furnace without additional fuel in order to ensure complete destruction of harmful agents. Energy recovered will be very little if any.

Second choice is sorting of the incoming waste to wet, organic part, RDF and recyclable materials. This makes the treatment of different fractions easier. Wet part can be composted and new soil/fertilizer is formed or it can be treated anaerobically and energy (biogas) is formed and the nutrients can be recovered as in composting. The combustible part is only about 30 % of the incoming waste and it is drier, thus the power plant is much smaller and still generating more energy than the large incineration plant. In this model energy is captured in two phases, biogas (traffic fuel, power, heat) from the wet part and power (heat) from the dry part. This can be applied without major changes in present waste collection.

The highest energy and material recovery is achieved when all materials are kept separated as long as possible. The minimum requirement is to keep wet and dry waste separated. If these are mixed, the energy value of soft materials like paper, cardboard, possible textiles etc. is lost because it gets wet if mixed with wet waste. The sorting of wet part and separation of valuable recyclables is easier if the material is kept dry. The better the incoming fuel is, the higher parameters can be designed for power plant, and thus the power recovery will be high. 

The training workshop included the basics of waste management for which there were many familiar elements to some of the participants. However, according to discussions after presentations, there is still confusion on which method is optimal for waste handling. Several technology suppliers have approached municipalities and waste handling companies promoting their own solutions. The aim of the presentations was to provide impartial information for the investors to decide and to introduce the Best Available Technologies for sustainable waste management.

Feedback from participants:

In order to get the feedback from the participants, at the end of each of the workshops a satisfaction survey was conducted among the participants. The results of the survey show that participants found the training program very interesting (equally interested in the various topics covered), and with consistent contents. They would very interested in further Capacity Building activities organized by EEP, and a majority of them are considering investments on Waste to Energy in the next 1-2 years.